Section 4.4

Punched Card Readers

4.4.1

The type of card reader currently available is the I.C.T. 593 End Fed Card Reader.  There are two models.  One is built to read 80 column cards with rectangular holes.  The other, 80 or 65 column cards with circular, oval or rectangular holes and normal and interstage punchings.  The change from 80 to 65 columns is effected by a manual switch, and by fitting a special reading head on the reader.  Each card reader requires a card control unit.  This unit controls the operation of the reader, carries out code conversion and passes information in units of a word to the central computer as it becomes available.  A special control unit is required for interstage working.

 

4.4.2  Modes for Reading Cards

A card read is initiated in the normal way by a compound instruction. e.g.

140.1  0    *CR1

142  INPUT  20

For 65 column cards the programmers' name begins *VR instead of *CR.

 

4.4.2.1 80 Column Cards.

There are seven modes for reading 80 column cards, the complete card or cards must be read in one of these modes:-

  1.   I.B.M.

  2.   I.C.T.

  4.   BULL.

  7.   I.B.M. and BINARY,

  8.   I.C.T. and BINARY.

11.   BULL and BINARY.

14.   BINARY.

 

In modes 1, 2 and 4 partial conversion of each column is carried out by hardware before the result is stored as two characters.  Conversion from this form to that required within the computer is carried out by program.  In mode 14, the complete card image is stored.  Modes 7, 8 and 11, which combine both these forms, are intended for reading those cards which have undisciplined punching of a type which cannot be decoded using the 2 character form alone.

 

4.4.2.2  65 Column Cards

There are eight modes for reading 65 column cards, the complete card or cards must be read in one of these modes:-

1.   I.B.M.  (Normal).

2.   I.C.T.   (Normal).

4.   BULL.  (Normal).

7.   I.B.M. and BINARY   (Normal).

8.   I.C.T. and BINARY    (Normal).

11.  BULL and BINARY    (Normal).

14.  BINARY.                  (Normal).

19.  BINARY,                  (Normal and Interstage).

Modes 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 14 read normal punching as for 80 column cards.  In mode 19, the complete card image of the normal punching and also the complete image of the interstage punching are stored.

 

4.4.3  Two Character Form

In the I.B.M., I.C.T. and BULL modes, each column of the card is examined to produce two 6-bit characters u and v.  The individual bits of the characters are numbered 0-5.

 

(a)   Character u

Bits 2-5 of character u are a direct copy of the upper curtate, the upper curtate rows and the placing of bits being defined by the mode of reading as follows:-
 

Position in Character

  0   1   2   3   4   5

I.B.M. (modes 1 and 7)

  -   -  10  11   0   8

I.C.T.  (modes 2 and 8)

  -   -  10  11   0   1

BULL  (modes 4 and 11)

  -   -   0    7   8   9

 

(The 12 Card rows are named 10, 11, 0, 1, 2, .... 8, 9 throughout this description, row 10 being the top row and row 9 the bottom row)

 

(b)  Character v

The character v is formed by converting the punching in a column to a number 0 - 11, which is placed in positions 2 - 5 of the character.  Row 10 of the card (the top row) produces 10.  Rows 11, 0, 1, .... 9 produce 11, 0, 1, .... 9 respectively.  If there are two or more holes in a column, the action is dependent on the placing of the holes:-

  (i) Where there is one hole which is not a permissible upper curtate hole (e.g. not 10, 11, 0, 8 in the I.B.M. code) this hole is taken to form v.

 (ii) Where all the holes in the column are within the permissible upper curtate, that hole nearest the 9's edge is taken to form v.

(iii) Where there are two (or more) holes outside the upper curtate the value of v is made zero.  In addition a 1-bit is placed in position 0 of u to indicate an error condition.  The remainder of the card is read normally.  If the card has been read in Modes 1, 2 or 4, an error interrupt occurs on completion of reading the card, and the card is deflected to the reject pocket.  This error interrupt is not given in Mode 7, 8 or 11, nor is the card rejected.

(c)  Checking

Two types of check are carried out on each column, the result of the check being indicated by placing bits in positions 0 and 1 of v.  This indication is used in the 100 convert instruction to ensure that the column contains the correct type of information.  The checks are:-

 (i)  Position 0 of v contains 0 unless there is more than one hole in rows 1-9.

(ii)  Position 1 of v contains 1 unless there is either no hole or more than one hole in rows 0-9.

 

4.4.4 Binary Image

In the binary image mode, an exact copy of each bit in the column is placed in the store, packed 4 columns to a word.  Each column is represented by two 6-bit characters termed ba and bb.  Character ba contains data from rows 10, 11, 0, 1, 2, 3 and character bb from rows 4 - 9.

 

4.4.5  Storage of Data

The transfer of data from the card read control to working store is in units of one word, causing a l6 microsecond hesitation per word.  The placing of characters for each mode is shown below, where u1 indicates character u from Column 1 etc.:-

 

Modes

1, 2, 4

7, 8, 11

Word 0

u1 - u4, v1 - v4

u1 - u4, v1 - v4

Word 1

u5 - u8, v5 - v8

etc.

ba1 - ba4, bb1 - bb4

etc.

 

Modes

14

19

Word 0

u1 - u4, v1 - v4

ba1 - ba4, bb1 - bb4 Normal

Word 1

u5 - u8, v5 - v8

etc.

ba1 - ba4, bb1 - bb4 Interstage

                   etc.

 

The number of words to be transferred is specified in the Y-address of the 142 function in the card feed instruction.  Any number of words can be called for and more than one card can be read on one card feed instruction.  When a whole card is not read the card passes the reading station and the rest of the information on it is therefore not accessible on this pass.

 

No. of words

Mode

80 column cards

65 column cards

17

1, 2, 4

68 columns

1 card

20

1, 2, 4

1 card

1 card and 12 columns

40

7, 8, 11

1 card

1 card and 6 columns

17

14

68 columns

1 card

20

14

1 card

1 card and 12 columns

34

19

------

1 card

 

The seventeenth word transferred on a 65 column card, (or the 33rd and 34th using modes 7, 8, 11 and 19) contains only one column of information, and the other 3 column positions contain zeros.  When more than one card is read on one 65 column card feed instruction, columns 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the second card are transferred to the eighteenth word (or 35th and 36th words using modes 7, 8, 11 and 19).

 

4.4.6  Input Conversion Instructions

Instructions 100 and 104 are used to convert information read in by any of the 2 character modes to the form required in the computer.

 

4.4.6.1  100 Instruction

This instruction converts mixed radix numbers in character form to binary integers.  In addition to conversion, facilities are provided to check or ignore characters, the type of action required on each digit being specified by placing bits in the two most significant

bits of each radix character as follows:-

(a)    00           Convert if position 0 of v is clear (i.e. check for not more than one hole in rows 1 - 9).

(b)    01 (+16)  Convert if positions 0 and 1 of v contain 01 (i.e, check for a single hole in rows 0 - 9).

(c)    10 (+32)  Convert regardless of contents of v.

(d)    11 (+48)  Multiply product by radix digit but ignore character v.

 

The sequence of events at each character is as follows, where xn and yn represent the nth characters in registers X and Y.

a)    Multiply product by bits 2-5 of yn.

b)    Unless bits 0 and 1 of yn are 11,

i)  Carry out checks on bits 0 and 1 of xn as specified by bits 0 and 1 of yn.

ii)  Check that the number represented by bits 2-5 of xn is less than that given by bits 2-5 of yn.

iii)  Add bits 2-5 of xn to product.

In all cases except (d), the digit v is checked to ensure that it contains a smaller number than the corresponding radix number.  (A full description of the 100 instruction is given in section 3.10).  The following example illustrates the use of the l00 instruction in connection with cards.

 

Assume register X contains a decimal number in character positions x3 - x6 to be converted to a binary integer and that x0, x1 and x2 contain unwanted information.  The l00 instruction will convert the number and check that positions x3 - x6 contain digits which originated from a column containing a single hole in rows 0-9, if y, the radix word is as follows:-

Position

y0

y1

y2

y3

y4

y5

y6

y7

Contents

0+48

0+48

0+48

10+16

10+16

10+16

10+16

1+48

Action

Ignore and clear product

Convert and check for single hole in rows 0-9 checking that v contains numbers less than 10.

Ignore and preserve product

 

4.4.6.2  104 Instruction

This instruction converts the 4 pairs of characters contained in X and forms 4 characters by looking up a table starting in Y and placing the result in the lower half of Z,  (or of X in 2-address type).

(3)  z' = z shifted left 4 characters + 4 characters formed.

(2)  xm' = 4 characters formed.   xu' = 0

(A full description of the 104 instruction is given in section 3.10).

 

The method of table look-up is to use bits 2-5 of v to indicate a word pair in the table and bits 2-5 of u to indicate the character in the word pair.  The table is therefore 24 words long.  Using this technique, any of the 3, 4 or 5 zone codes can be converted.  The method is illustrated by the tables on page 9.

 

In these tables the Erase character (value 63) is placed in all the positions of the table which do not correspond to a character in a particular code, to signify an illegal punching.  Illegal punchings can be detected by scanning the result of the conversion for erase characters.

 

Certain codes have minor variations.  The most common are:-

I.B.M.                    $ for

I.B.M. and BULL      & for 11
                             - for 10

The tables are constructed for ease of punching.  The punching equivalents for bits 2-5 of u, forming one argument of the table, are shown at the top.  The top row (10 in the I.B.M. code) provides the entry to the odd numbered words in the table.  Bits 2-5 of v, shown down the page, form the other argument.  (Bits 3-5 of u give the position in the word, and bits 2-5 of v and bit 2 of u give the word in the table).

 

For simplicity, letters and symbols have been shown in the table.  These must be rewritten as numbers before acceptance by symbolic input, the required equivalent internal representation being substituted for each character.  The internal code chosen will depend on the individual program or user requirements.  As far as possible, the flexowriter upper case code should be followed.  The 'hardware' limits the choice of code in two ways:-

a)   The output conversion instruction (101) inserts a 1-bit in the l6 position of each character, as it is being converted.  The numbers 0-11 must therefore be represented by values l6 - 27.

b)   The various control characters e.g. Newline, Paper Throw, Tabulate have a given action on a particular machine.  It is not possible to change the interpretation of these values.

 

The conversion table on page 10 shows the method of writing program constants to convert the I.C.T. New 4 Zone code to an internal code assuming that:-

a)  Values 16 - 27 represent numbers 0 - 11.

b)  Values 33 - 58 represent alphabetic characters A - Z.

c)  Value 13 represents the symbol  &.

 

Further tables for common punched card codes are shown on Page 11.  In all the codes, there may be minor variations in different punched card installations.  In the older codes, certain of the characters have a dual significance (e.g. the alphabetic character I and numeral 1 may be represented by a single character).  In these cases, the alphabetic equivalent has been shown.  If a particular card field contains alpha characters only, it will be possible to assign the required value using these tables.  Fields containing numerical data only will normally be converted direct to binary using the 100 instruction.  If there are alpha-numeric fields, it is impossible to distinguish between these characters.

 

Code Shown and Mode used

IBM (COMMERCIAL SET)
Mode 1 or 7

ICT (NEW 4 ZONE)
Mode 2 or 8

BULL (OLD CODE)
Mode 4 or 11

Position in word

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7

Punching represented
by char. u.

( ........10.........)
-  -  -  - 
Ц  Ц  Ц  Ц
-  -  0  0  -  -  0  0
-  8  -  8  -  8  -  8

( ........10.........)
-  -  -  - 
Ц  Ц  Ц  Ц
-  -  0  0  -  -  0  0
-  8  -  8  -  8  -  8

( ........0..........)
-  -  -  - 
7  7  7  7
-  -  8  8  -  -  8  8
-  9  -  9  -  9  -  9

Word in Char. v.

Table.  bits 2-5

 

 0       0 or

 1       space

 

 2       1

 3

 

 4       2

 5

 

 6       3

 7

 

 8       4

 9

 

10       5

11

 

12       6

13

 

14       7

15

 

16       8

17

 

18       9

19

 

20       10

21

 

22       11

23

 

 

 

 

Sp ▓  0  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

1  ▓  /  ▓  J  ▓  ▓  ▓

A  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

2  ▓  S  ▓  K  ▓  ▓  ▓

B  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

3  #  T  ,  L    ▓  ▓

C  .  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

4  @  U  %  M  *  ▓  ▓

  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

5  ▓  V  ▓  N  ▓  ▓  ▓

E  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

6  ▓  W  ▓  O  ▓  ▓  ▓

F  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

7  ▓  X  ▓  P  ▓  ▓  ▓

G  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  8  ▓  Y  ▓  Q  ▓  ▓

▓  H  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

9  ▓  Z  ▓  R  ▓  ▓  ▓

I  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

Ц  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  Ю  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

 

 

Sp ▓  0  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  1  ▓  &  ▓  J  ▓  ▓

▓  A  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

2  ▓  S  ▓  K  ▓  ▓  ▓

B  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

3  ▓  T  ▓  L  ▓  ▓  ▓

C  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

4  ▓  U  ▓  M  ▓  ▓  ▓

  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

5  ▓  V  ▓  N  ▓  ▓  ▓

E  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

6  ▓  W  ▓  O  ▓  ▓  ▓

F  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

7  ▓  X  ▓  P  ▓  ▓  ▓

G  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

8  ▓  Y  ▓  Q  ▓  ▓  ▓

H  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

9  ▓  Z  ▓  R  ▓  ▓  ▓

I  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

Ю  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  Ц  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

 

 

Sp ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

0  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

1  U  L  ▓  C  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

2  V  M  ▓  D  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

3  W  N  ▓  E  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

4  X  P  ▓  F  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

5  Y  Q  ▓  G  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

6  Z  R  ▓  H  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  7  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  B  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  ▓  8  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  K  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

▓  9  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  T  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

Ц  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

Ю  S  J  ▓  A  ▓  ▓  ▓

▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓  ▓

 

 

 

              The symbol represents erase

         The symbol * represents asterisk (word 8, I.B.M. Code).

         The notation  ( ......10.......) or ( ......0.......) means:-

                  If the row (10 or 0) is not punched, take the first word of the word pair,

               If the row (10 or 0) is punched, take the second word of the word pair.

 

Sample card-input code conversion table for use with the 104-instruction, in a form acceptable to Symbolic Input.

 

I.C.T. NEW 4 ZONE CODE.  (Mode 2 or 8).

 

 Char. Pos.       0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7       0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7

 Word.                                     

 0

 1

 2

 3

 4

 5

 6

 7

 8

 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

  0,63,16,63,63,63,63,63

 63,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 63,17,63,13,63,42,63,63

 63,33,63,63,63,63,63,63

 18,63,51,63,43,63,63,63

 34,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 19,63,52,63,44,63,63,63

 35,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 20,63,53,63,45,63,63,63

 36,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 21,63,54,63,46,63,63,63

 37,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 22,63,55,63,47,63,63,63

 38,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 23,63,56,63,48,63,63,63

 39,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 24,63,57,63,49,63,63,63

 40,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 25,63,58,63,50,63,63,63

 41,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 63,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 26,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

 63,63,63,63,27,63,63,63

 63,63,63,63,63,63,63,63

     Sp    0

 

        1     &     J

        A

     2     S     K

     B

     3     T     L

     C

     4     U     M

     D

     5     V     N

     E

     6     W     O

     F

     7     X     P

     G

     8     Y     Q

     H

     9     Z     R

     I

 

     Ю

                 Ц

 

The numbers enclosed within the middle box represent the actual code table as prepared for Symbolic Input.

 

 

IBM

SCIENTIFIC SET.

(Mode 1 or 7)

HOLLERITH

3 ZONE

(Mode 2 or 8)

HOLLERITH

OLD 4 ZONE.

(Mode 2 or 8)

HOLLERITH

5 ZONE.

(Mode 2 or 8)

Char. Pos.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Word No.

         0

      1

      2

      3

      4

      5

      6

      7

      8

      9

     10

     11

     12

     13

     14

     15

     16

     17

     18

     19

     20

     21

     22

     23

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

1 ▓ . ▓ J ▓ ▓ ▓

A ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 ▓ S ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓

B ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 = T , L π ▓ ▓

C / ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 U ( M * ▓ ▓

D ) ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 V ▓ N ▓ ▓

E ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

6 W ▓ O > ▓ ▓

F ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 ≡ X ▓ P ? ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 8 ▓ Y ▓ Q ▓ ▓

▓ H ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 ▓ Z ▓ R ▓ ▓ ▓

I ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

+ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ - ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ B ▓

▓ ▓ N ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 1 ▓ ▓ ▓ C ▓ ▓

▓ P ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 ▓ ▓ ▓ D ▓ ▓ ▓

Q ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 ▓ ▓ ▓ E ▓ ▓ ▓

R ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 ▓ ▓ ▓ F ▓ ▓ ▓

T ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 ▓ ▓ ▓ H ▓ ▓ ▓

U ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ J ▓ ▓ ▓

V ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 ▓ ▓ ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓

W ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

S ▓ ▓ ▓ L ▓ ▓ ▓

X ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 ▓ ▓ ▓ M ▓ ▓ ▓

Y ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

Z ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ A ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 1 ▓ C ▓ B ▓ ▓

▓ A ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 ▓ F ▓ E ▓ ▓ ▓

D ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 ▓ I ▓ H ▓ ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 ▓ L ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓

J ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 ▓ O ▓ N ▓ ▓ ▓

M ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

6 ▓ R ▓ Q ▓ ▓ ▓

P ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 ▓ U ▓ T ▓ ▓ ▓

S ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

8 ▓ X ▓ W ▓ ▓ ▓

V ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 ▓ & ▓ Z ▓ ▓ ▓

Y ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

Ц ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Ю ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 1 ▓ & ▓ J ▓ ▓

▓ A ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 % S ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓

B ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 T ▓ L ▓ ▓ ▓

C ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 - U ▓ M ▓ ▓ ▓

D ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 / V ▓ N ▓ ▓ ▓

E ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

6 .W ▓ O ▓ ▓ ▓

F ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 . X ▓ P ▓ ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

8 @ Y ▓ Q ▓ ▓ ▓

H ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 Z ▓ R ▓ ▓ ▓

I ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

Ю ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Ц ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

 

POWERS

32 CHARACTER.

(Mode 2 or 8)

POWERS

39 CHARACTER.

(Mode 2 or 8)

BULL

NEW CODE.

(Mode 4 or 11)

Char. Pos.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Word No.

      0

      1

      2

      3

      4

      5

      6

      7

      8

      9

     10

     11

     12

     13

     14

     15

     16

     17

     18

     19

     20

     21

     22

     23

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ P

▓ ▓ C ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ I ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Q ▓

▓ D ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ R ▓ ▓

E ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ T ▓ ▓

F ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ U ▓ ▓

H ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 ▓ ▓ ▓ V ▓ ▓

J ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ W ▓ ▓

K ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ X ▓ ▓

L ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

S ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Y ▓ ▓

M ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Z ▓ ▓

N ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

A ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ B ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

Sp▓ 0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 1 ▓ S ▓ J ▓ ▓

▓ A ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 ▓ T ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓

B ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 ▓ U ▓ L ▓ ▓ ▓

C ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 ▓ V ▓ M ▓ ▓ ▓

D ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 ▓ W ▓ N ▓ ▓ ▓

E ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

6 ▓ X ▓ O ▓ ▓ ▓

F ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

7 ▓ Y ▓ P ▓ ▓ ▓

G ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

8 ▓ Z ▓ Q ▓ ▓ ▓

H ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

9 ▓ ▓ ▓ R ▓ ▓ ▓

I ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

Ю ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ Ц ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

Sp▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

0 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

1 U L ) C % ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

2 V M x D $ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

3 W N : E ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

4 X P < F ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

5 Y Q > G □ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

6 Z R ≠ H ∆ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ 7 ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ B ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ 8 ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ K ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

▓ 9 ▓ - ▓ * ▓ ▓

▓ T ▓ ( ▓ ▓ ▓

Ц . I + O / ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

Ю S J = A , ▓ ▓

▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓

 

 

 

4.4.7  I.C.T. 593 End Fed Card Reader

General Description

This card reader reads 80 column or 65 column cards at 600 cards per minute.  The machine consists of a card hopper on the right of the machine and a card stacker on the left connected by a card track, the whole assembly being inclined to the rear.  Cards are fed into the hopper face down, column 1 to the left.  Card movement from right to left is initiated by two feed knives which move the bottom card under rollers.  The rollers move the card past the reading head and round a U bend to enter the left side of the stacker, column 1 now to the right.  There is a device which lifts all the cards in the stacker every machine cycle to allow cards unrestricted entry to the bottom of the stacker.

Card Hopper

The hopper has a maximum capacity of 2000.  Cards are fed in two separate stages; a 'reservoir' of about 1500 cards is held up by a special clamp, while a separate, lower 'working block' of about 400 cards is served by a micro-switch which arranges to release approximately 75 cards from the reservoir into the working block when the level becomes low.  Card feeding will continue until the level of cards has reached 200, when it will be stopped unless the card weight is in position.  To restart the machine either more cards or the card weight must be placed in the hopper and the engage button pressed.  If the card weight is in place at 200 cards, the cards will run through uninterruptedly.  The card weight may be placed at any time after the reservoir has become empty.  Cards may be placed on top of the reservoir while the machine is running.

Card Reading

The reading head has two read positions spaced one column apart.  As the columns pass the read positions they are read at each by a set of 12 photo-electric cells corresponding to the 12 index rows of a card.  The control unit carries out a row-by-row comparison of the readings.  If any of the columns has been misread, the card is sent automatically to the reject pocket, which is located at the bottom left side of the machine.  This pocket has a capacity of 500 cards.  There is no facility to deflect cards by program into this pocket.

Timing of Operations

One machine cycle takes 100 ms.  Once started, the machine operates continuously, feeding cards at a certain point in this 100 ms. cycle whenever a card-call signal is received from the card control unit.  Since continuous operation of this machine causes wear, the machine is automatically switched off if a card is not called in a period of a minute.  The machine remains 'engaged'.  A subsequent card call will re-start the machine and feed a card when full speed is reached.  To maintain full reading speed a card-call signal must be sent to the machine within 4 ms. of check reading the last column of the previous card.  (This allows about 3 ms. of program time after leaving the tine-sharer following the interrupt on completion of reading the card).  If a card-read is initiated while the previous card is still being read, this card-read instruction will be locked out until the previous card read is completed.  If a card read is not initiated in time, one machine cycle will elapse before the next card is fed.  The reading of the card takes 57 ms.  The remaining 43 ms. of the cycle represents the gap between cards.

Controls and Lights.

The following controls and lights are placed on the display panel on the card reader:

'Engage'

Push Button and Indicator.

'Disengage'

Push Button and Indicator.

'Select'

Push Button and 'Busy' Indicator.

'Card-Wreck or Misfeed'

Indicator.  [Hopper Low (200 cards) or Stacker Warning (2000 cards, or reject pocket full (500 cards)].

'Manual'   

Indicator.

'Mains On'

Indicator.  [or 65-80 column switch/indicator in the case of the 65 column machine].

 

Operating Procedure

Cards are fed face down, column 1 leading.

The following conditions result in monitor action, (see Section 5.5.2)

a)   Card Misread.

b)   Illegal punching in modes 1, 2 or 4.

c)   Card Misfeed.

d)   Card Wreck.

e)   Hopper empty.

f)    Hopper below 200 cards without weight in place.

g)    Stacker full.   (2000 cards).

h)    Reject Pocket full.   (500 cards).

 

Action on Cards Low in multi-card transfers

If the 'Card levels' indicator is set during a multi-card transfer, other than during the last card, then the transfer is abandoned at the end of the current card, no further cards being fed.  Any program which uses multi-card transfers must deal with this - there are two suggested ways of doing so:

(a)  A restart could be set up for Code 4 (see 5.5.2).  This should look at the current address in the X address position of the interrogation information.  This is the address of the first card image not read and hence the number of cards not read can be deduced.  The restart can disengage the reader then initiate a transfer to read the cards not read before returning to the main program by a 150/25 instruction as usual.

(b)  Before each transfer the program could clear the region concerned with a 143 instruction.  If the default restart took place and the transfer was abandoned it would appear to the programmer as though a few blank cards had been read - the program would presumably ignore these.

It is possible for a transfer to be abandoned even if it only asks for one card - this occurs if one initiates a transfer with card levels set; in this case no card is read or fed.  This can only happen if (a) the program's restart on card levels asks for another card without disengaging or (b) the operator removes cards or the card weight between transfers.

Cards Low and Hopper Empty

Cards Low

When the last card that can be fed has been fed, a cards level indicator is set which causes an OPERATOR interruption.  In general the interruption occurs after the card has been successfully read; the card will appear in the stacker.  The OMP default action in this case will be adequate.

 

It is possible that the indicator will be set at the beginning of the transfer, in which case the transfer will be lost.  If this occurs with the last readable card it will not be read but will be deflected into the reject pocket.  There will have to be a restart to re-read this card, though see "Action on Cards low in multicard-transfers (b)"

 

Hopper Empty

In this case both OPERATOR and DISABLED incidents are signalled.  It is recommended that several blank cards should always terminate a pack so that this case will not occur.

 

4.4.8  Orion 2 Differences

The information in this section refers in general both to Orion 1 and Orion 2.  Described here are the differences to be noted when reading the subsections for Orion 2.

 

The main differences are that the conversion to u and v characters is done by the extracode and not by hardware, and that Modes 4 and 11 are not available for both 80 and 65 columns.

 

Section 4.4.2.1. Mode 19 (binary and interstage) is available for 80 columns - the interstage button must be "on" for use by extracode when this mode is used.

 

Section 4.4.3 (b) (iii)  The offending card is not deflected to the reject pocket.

 

Section 4.4.5   The 16 microsecond hesitation does not apply.

 

Section 4.4.7   Comparison of readings is done by hesitations.